สิงหาคม 1, 2021
  • สิงหาคม 1, 2021

Biz Law Full Revision Notes

By on กุมภาพันธ์ 3, 2020 0 36 Views

A medium of exchange is transitional instrument used to settle the trade of products and services among market participants. It should have a consistent intrinsic value, be interchangeable, transportable, and reliable. Breaching forex broker innominate term o If a breach results in trivial consequences, a remedy in damages should suffice . o If a breach results in serious consequences, the injured party should be entitled to treat the contract as discharged .

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What crucial role do banks and other financial institutions play? Financial institution are critical organizations that have an important role to play in the economy. Such institutions include commercial banks, savings and credit societies as well as investment institutions and together they help individuals, businesses and other organizations use their finances properly. Online trading – this is done online using Forex online trading platforms.

With each check people can know how much they spent, who paid, when they paid, and even what they are paying for. Speculative demandMoney demanded because of expectations about interest rates in the future. This means that people will decide to expand their money balances and hold off on bond purchases if they expect interest rate to rise.

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For an offer to be effective, it must be communicated to the offeree o E.g. If offer is sent on Monday and it reaches offeree on Wednesday, the offer is deemed to be made on Wednesday. I just initiated the process of turning my bitcoin into cash through buybitcoin.ph. I invite my fellow Pinoys to take advantage of Bitcoin by joining Bitbillions. Bitcoin is the future of money – decentralized, borderless, and with almost negligible transfer fees.

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as long as the market is liquid, there will be a buyer for every seller and vice versa. On the other hand, a non-financial asset, such as piece of equipment or vehicle, can be challenging to sell because there is not an active market of buyer and seller.

There are risks with rising Philippine interest rates and a local currency that continues to depreciate against the US dollar. Drivers of growth are shifting from quarter to quarter and the authorities need to be cognizant of the factors that could derail the growth momentum. All of these market changes have to be understood in the context of repricing, refinancing and repayment risks.

What comprises the financial system? The financial system is complex, comprising many different types of private sector financial institutions, including banks, insurance companies, finance companies, mutual funds, and investment banks, all of which are regulated by the government.  Forward contracts – An agreement to buy or sell an asset at a predetermined price as of a future date. This is a highly customizable derivative, which is not traded on an exchange.

This is important not only to those buying and selling businesses, but also to regulators.  Receivables – a contractual right to receive cash or another financial asset from currency pairs list another entity. Explain the nature of a derivative.Derivative is a financial security with a value that is reliant upon or derived from, an underlying asset- a benchmark.

Shares, bonds and other types of financial instruments make it possible. The financial markets are also an important source of capital for individuals who wish to buy homes or cars, or even to make credit-card purchases. What are transaction and information cost?

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 Stocks – are financial assets with no set ending or expiration date. An investor buying stocks becomes part-owner of a company and shares in its profits and losses. Stocks may be held indefinitely or sold to other investors. Some investment analysts argue that very low interest rates on some long-term bonds make them risky investment.When investment rates rise, investment prices fall (and vise-versa), with long-term bonds is most sensitive to rate changes. This is because longer-term bonds have a greater duration than short-term bonds that are closer to maturity and have fewer coupon payments remaining. Long-term bonds are also exposed to a greater probability that interest rates will change over its remaining duration. Explain briefly how money facilitates the flow of resources in macroeconomy.Money facilitates the flow of resources in the circular model of macroeconomy.

Risk ManagementFutures, options and other derivatives contracts can provide protection against many types of risk, such as the possible that a foreign currency will lose value against the domestic currency before an export payment is received. They also enable the markets to attach a price to risk, allowing firms and individuals to trade risks so they can reduce their exposure to some while retaining exposure to others. Commercial TransactionAs forex broker well as long-term capital, the financial markets provide the grease that makes many commercial transactions possible. This includes such things as arranging payment for the sale of a product abroad, and providing working capital so that a firm can pay employees if payments form customers run late. Explain briefly how the following regulatory agencies intent to align their policies, roles and practices with global standards a.

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▪ Geier v Kujawa, Weston & Warne Bros Ltd – The court held that there was no sufficiency of notice because Geier did not take the reasonable step of translating the notice. ▪ Henry Kendall & Sons v William Lillico & Sons & Ors – The EC formed part of the contracts . On the other hand, over-the-counter exchange, is where shares, bonds and money market instrument are traded using a system of computer screens and telephone. Dealer in an over-the- counter market attempt to match up the orders they receive from investors to buy and sell its stock. Many common stocks are traded over the counter although the majority of the largest corporations have their shares traded at organized stock exchange. Having a well-functioning financial system in place that directs funds to their most productive uses is a crucial prerequisite for economic development.

Second method of raising funds is by issuing equity instruments, such as common or ordinary stock, which are claims to share in the net income and the asset of the business. If you own one share of common stock in a company that has issued one million shares, you are entitled of 1 one- millionth of the firm’s net income and 1 one-millionth of firm’s assets. equities often make periodic payment to their holders and are considered long-term securities because they have no maturity date.

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The changes in the supply of money will affect the interest rate and therefore the cost of borrowing money. This will have an impact on consumption and investment levels in the economy. In cases stated, it must be noted that they deal with a minor’s contract which is still executory by minor. If minor has already performed obligation, then the minor is generally unable to recover any money paid or goods delivered, unless there has been total failure of consideration by the other party.

Compare that when moving money using Paypal or Western Union. It is more volatile than the most volatile stock out there. It is not a safe haven for your money. It is what scammers use to get your money because it is not reversible . For those who would like to “mine” bitcoins, all you need is a bitcoin mining software and a powerful PC – be it a workstation PC on your 3D modelling work or a gaming PC at your home, it’ll do.

Live streaming of foreign currencies and Forex trading are available. Some online brokers also offer stocks, futures, and gold in line with different currencies. Online Forex trading is a more complex way of money exchange because the global currency exchange is in your dashboard. What is the most significant role that financial markets play?

The pricing of non-financial item may be foggy as there is no market standard. The time it takes to find a buyer, make the sale, and distribute the physical asset, make non-financial illiquid. In short, a financial asset, are easier to value and more liquid. While, a non- financial asset is an asset that derives its value from its physical trait intellectual property.

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This kind of demand has a negative relationship with the interest rate. PredictingStudents learn to become aware in the economy and learn to understand economic analysis. EvaluatingStudents learn to become aware in the economy and learn to understand economic analysis. In some cases the court may allow an innocent party to recover property which would otherwise pass to the defaulting party under the illegal contract. Routledge v McKay – The English court of appeal held that there was clear and significant interval of one week between the making of the statement and the making of the contract. This indicates that the statement was not a term of the contract. In support of alternative view, in Dickson Trading Pte Ltd v Transmarco Ltd , Chan Kek Keong JC said “the offeror in a unilateral contract has an obligation not to revoke the offer after the offeree has embarked on the performance of the conditions.”

  • Such institutions include commercial banks, savings and credit societies as well as investment institutions and together they help individuals, businesses and other organizations use their finances properly.
  • Global money remittances are also delivered with Western Union, Xoom, Money Gram and the like.
  • Pero just the same you should invest for the long term sa cryptos.
  • Money, by contrast, has a recognized uniform value and is widely accepted.
  • Bitcoin, a popular online digital currency which also known as the “gold for nerds”, can now be bought and sold here in the Philippines.
  • The test is whether a reasonable person viewing all the circumstances of the case would consider that the promisor intended his promise to have legal consequences.

During the implementation of the warrant, the NBI agents alleged that the respondents were caught in control of their computers and actively engage in foreign exchange trading. TransparencyThe availability of prompt and complete information about trades and prices. Generally, the less transparent the market, the less willing people are to trade there. Insurance CommissionThe IC is preparing for the implementation of the Philippine Financial Reporting lexatrade scammers Standard Council that will be applied to insurance companies. Those who have saved and are lending funds, the lender-savers, are at the left, and those who must borrow funds to finance their spending, the borrower-spenders, are at the right. The principal lender-servers are households, but business enterprises and the government, as well as foreigners and their governments, sometimes also find themselves with excess funds and so lend them out.

Discuss briefly the following current risks in the Philippines Financial system a. Repricing, refinancing and repayment risksThe risks flagged by other jurisdictions highlight the fact that global developments largely affected the domestic economies. the impact, however, is much more significant for a small and open economy such as the Philippines which is a price taker, rather than a price setter.

 Shares – Shares represent equity ownership in a corporation or financial asset, owned by investors who exchange capital in return for these units.  Bank deposits – consist of money placed into banking institutions for safekeeping. These deposits are made to deposit accounts such as savings accounts, checking accounts, and money market accounts.

Esso Petroleum Co Ltd v Harper’s Garage Ltd – Restraint too long. Test of reasonableness requires a consideration of the public interest which must be protected in such exclusive dealing agreements. Che Som bte Yip & Ors Maha Pte Ltd & Ors – Court held that brother’s knowledge of the third plaintiff’s condition was imputed to the bank.

The most important borrower-spenders are businesses and the government, but households and foreigners also borrow to finance their purchases of cars, furniture, and houses. At law, age of majority defines the stage at which a person reaches adulthood and is considered legally responsible for his actions – Singapore 21 years old, UK 18 years old.

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Price SettingThe value of an ounce of gold or a share of stock is no more, and no less, than what someone is willing to pay to own it. markets provide price discovery, a way to determine the relative values of different items, based upon the prices at which individuals lexatrade are willing to buy and sell them. first time, such as with an initial public offering . The secondary market is basically the stock market and the investors trade among themselves, they trade previous issued securities without the issuing companies’ involvement.

Explain what asymmetric information is.Asymmetric information means that one party has more or better information than the other when making decisions and transactions. In financial transaction, typically the borrower has more information than does the lender. The imperfect information causes an imbalance of power. Accurate information is essential for sound economic decisions. When a market experiences an imbalance, it can lead to market failure.

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